6 Types of Databases in Computer Science

Data is mainly a piece of information that has been processed or saved by a computer. This data might be in the form of written documents, photos, audio clips, and other formats. 

A database is a collection of data that is structured and can be used and managed simply by storing, retrieving, and managing data, a database can handle a tremendous volume of data. The Database Management System, or DBMS, is the database's controller. 

I suppose we're all clear on databases now, so let's move on to the next section of this blog, where we'll learn about different types of databases and their perks and downsides. Scroll to discover more.

Types of Databases
We'll go through the six different types of databases and their advantages and disadvantages.  Let's begin by considering the following:

Types of Databases

1. Cloud Databases

Data which stored in a virtual environment known as Cloud Database which also executes over the cloud computing services for accessing the database. To clarify, data is stored in a hybrid cloud, a public cloud, or a private cloud. I'll recommend the top cloud systems, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud SQL.

When it comes to the benefits of cloud databases, the possibility to pay a lower total cost is one of them. It is also safer and more secure since DBaaS infrastructures provide world-class security. 

Let's have a look at some of the drawbacks now. The most significant is that it is no longer in control, that it may not receive all of the capabilities, and, most notably, that it is having bandwidth challenges.

2. Relational Databases 

A relational database stores information in the form of a table with rows and columns. A primary key is used to link each row of data in the database to another row. Because it is used for storing, processing, and managing data, Structured Query Language (SQL) plays a significant part in this. 

The most essential advantage is that this database has a faster speed due to its simplicity. As a result, all apps will operate at a reasonable speed. Another advantage is its security; tables are secured by a username and password, allowing only authorized people to access them.

The cost of a relational database is relatively high, which is its drawback. Of course, we all know about the second downside, which is the database's performance; the more tables, the slower the performance becomes.

3. NoSQL Databases

When it comes to storing a large amount of data, NoSQL or Non-SQL is the best option. Some big data performance concerns might arise with relational databases, but these issues can be quickly resolved with NoSQL databases, which are particularly effective at processing massive amounts of unstructured data. 

To be clear, NoSQL databases store data in a variety of ways, not only tabularly. Key-value storage, Graph databases, Wide-column stores, and Document-oriented databases are the four types of NoSQL databases.

The advantage of NoSQL databases is that they can quickly change when new types of information are added without having to update table structures, change indexes, and so on. Another advantage is that many NoSQL databases can manage large datasets, making them perfect for big data, IoT, and other real-time analytics applications.

The disadvantage of NoSQL databases is that they are not built to scale on their own, and their queries are less flexible and mature.

4. Columnar Databases

A Columnar Database stores data in columns rather than rows, as the term "column" indicates a vertical arrangement of things or anything. It also increases disc I/O performance when you store this manner. It is capable of storing more info in less memory.

The advantages of employing a columnar database include the fact that they are multipurpose and that they attract a lot of attention from major applications. Data may also be compressed very well in this database. Columnar databases need less disc space than relational databases.

Let's have a look at the main drawback which is that a columnar database can manipulate an entire row which is inefficient. More of its downsides would be incremental data loading and Online transaction processing usage.

5. Key-value Databases

As we learned about the relational database before, a key-value database is a non-relational database that stores data using a simple key-value technique. Simple data types like characters and integers, as well as complicated objects, can be used as values. Without requiring new design or code changes, key-value stores are simple to migrate from one system to another. It's readily expandable, with the ability to accommodate tens of thousands of users at any given time.

One of the clearest advantages is that it saves data in the same way that NoSQL databases do. Querying isn't feasible with key-value storage in general, except in the situation of querying keys, which isn't always possible.

The main disadvantage is that you have no control over the data, which can be problematic in some situations because the information you get is not filtered.

6. Hierarchical Databases

We've all heard of the "Hierarchical order," which is used to categorize parent-child relationships. Hierarchical databases, on the other hand, organize data in a tree-like form. It also tracks the evolution of data being categorized into ranks or levels, with data being categorized based on a common point of connection. 

Moreover, each child recorded in the tree will only have one parent. Each parent record, on the other hand, might have many child records.

This database has the advantage of being extremely quick in accessing data at the top, as well as being a huge database with established technology. Not to mention the fact that it is built on parent-child nodes, which makes it quite simple.

The downsides of the hierarchical database are that while it is simple to create and install, it is relatively complicated to use. Also, when data is stored on lower entities, it can be very slow.


I hope that you find this blog informative and helpful; do you have any further information on the benefits and drawbacks of these six database types?  Do let us know, thank you.


A multi-talented content writer with various technical skills in her arsenal.